Eswatini Business

Eswatini is located in Southern Africa, bordered by South Africa to the west, north, and south, and Mozambique to the east. The geographic coordinates of Eswatini range from approximately 25° S to 28° S latitude and 30° E to 32° E longitude.

Geography

Climate:

Eswatini has a subtropical climate, characterized by hot summers and mild winters. The country experiences distinct wet and dry seasons, with rainfall typically occurring between October and March. Temperatures vary depending on elevation, with cooler temperatures in the highlands and warmer temperatures in the lowlands.

Fauna:

Eswatini is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including mammals such as elephants, rhinoceroses, lions, and giraffes. The country’s numerous nature reserves and national parks, including Hlane Royal National Park and Mlilwane Wildlife Sanctuary, provide sanctuary for a variety of species, including antelopes, zebras, and hippos.

Longest Rivers:

The major rivers in Eswatini include the Great Usutu River, which flows through the eastern part of the country, and the Ngwavuma River, which forms part of the border with Mozambique. These rivers are vital sources of water for agriculture, industry, and domestic use.

Highest Mountains:

Eswatini’s terrain is characterized by rolling hills and mountains, with the highest peaks located in the western part of the country. The highest mountain in Eswatini is Emlembe, standing at approximately 1,862 meters (6,109 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountains include Ngwenya Mountain and Ntfungula Mountain.

History

Prehistory:

Eswatini has a rich archaeological heritage, with evidence of human habitation dating back thousands of years. The region was inhabited by various indigenous peoples, including the San and Nguni peoples, who engaged in hunting, gathering, and early forms of agriculture.

Early Kingdoms:

The history of Eswatini is closely linked to that of the Swazi people, who migrated to the region in the 18th century. The Swazi established a series of small chiefdoms, which gradually coalesced into a unified kingdom under King Sobhuza I in the early 19th century.

British and South African Rule:

Eswatini came under British colonial rule in the late 19th century, becoming a British protectorate known as Swaziland. The British imposed indirect rule through local chiefs while exploiting the country’s natural resources, particularly land and labor. In 1968, Swaziland gained independence from Britain, but its political system remained largely unchanged.

Independence and Modern Era:

Since gaining independence, Eswatini has faced challenges related to governance, economic development, and social inequality. The country has been ruled by a monarchy, with King Mswati III ascending to the throne in 1986. Despite efforts to promote democracy and diversify the economy, Eswatini continues to grapple with issues such as poverty, unemployment, and HIV/AIDS.

Demographics

Eswatini has a population of approximately 1.3 million people, comprising various ethnic groups, including the Swazi, Zulu, and Tsonga. The majority of the population is ethnically Swazi, with Swazi culture and traditions playing a central role in society. Christianity is the predominant religion, with the majority of Swazis adhering to various Christian denominations.

Ethnicity and Religion:

The Swazi people make up the majority of the population, accounting for over 90% of Eswatini’s inhabitants. Other ethnic groups, such as the Zulu and Tsonga, also reside in the country, contributing to its cultural diversity. Christianity is the predominant religion, with the majority of Swazis identifying as Christian, although traditional beliefs and practices also persist.

Language:

SiSwati and English are the official languages of Eswatini, reflecting the country’s cultural and linguistic diversity. SiSwati is the most widely spoken language, used in everyday communication and official proceedings, while English serves as the primary language of education, government, and business.

Education:

Education in Eswatini is provided by both public and private institutions at all levels, from primary school to university. Primary education is free and compulsory for children ages 7 to 13, although access to education remains limited in rural areas. Eswatini has made efforts to improve literacy rates and expand educational opportunities for all citizens.

Administrative Divisions

Eswatini is divided into four regions, each with its own regional administrator appointed by the central government. The regions, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Hhohho Region – Population: 600,000
  2. Lubombo Region – Population: 300,000
  3. Manzini Region – Population: 400,000
  4. Shiselweni Region – Population: 250,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Eswatini by population include:

  1. Mbabane – Population: 100,000
  2. Manzini – Population: 90,000
  3. Lobamba – Population: 30,000
  4. Nhlangano – Population: 25,000
  5. Siteki – Population: 20,000
  6. Big Bend – Population: 15,000
  7. Malkerns – Population: 10,000
  8. Piggs Peak – Population: 9,000
  9. Mhlume – Population: 8,000
  10. Hluti – Population: 7,000

Education Systems

Education in Eswatini is provided by both public and private institutions at all levels, from primary school to university. Primary education is free and compulsory for children ages 7 to 13, although access to education remains limited in rural areas. Eswatini has made efforts to improve literacy rates and expand educational opportunities for all citizens.

Transportation

Airports:

Eswatini is served by one major airport, King Mswati III International Airport, located near the capital city of Mbabane. The airport handles domestic and international flights, connecting Eswatini with various destinations in Africa and beyond.

Railways:

Eswatini has a limited railway network operated by the Eswatini Railway. The total length of railways in Eswatini is approximately 301 kilometers (187 miles), with major routes connecting the capital city of Mbabane with the towns of Matsapha and Manzini.

Highways:

Eswatini has a well-maintained road network consisting of highways, paved roads, and gravel roads. The country’s major highways include the MR3, MR4, and MR8, which connect the capital city of Mbabane with other urban centers and regions across the country.

Ports:

Eswatini is a landlocked country and does not have any major ports. However, the nearby ports of Maputo in Mozambique and Durban in South Africa serve as important hubs for maritime trade and transportation, providing access to international markets for Eswatini’s imports and exports.

Country Facts

  • Population: 1.3 million
  • Capital: Mbabane
  • Official Languages: SiSwati, English
  • Religion: Christianity
  • Ethnic Groups: Swazi, Zulu, Tsonga
  • Currency: Lilangeni (SZL)
  • ISO Country Code: SZ
  • International Calling Code: +268
  • Top-Level Domain: .sz