Asia – people
Asia makes up a third of the Earth’s land area, but is inhabited by approximately 60 percent of the population. Compared to other continents, there are several different race types and peoples. The most widespread breed is the Mongoloid, which is found mainly in North, East, Central and Southeast Asia, and then the Caucasian (Europide) breed, especially in West and South Asia. Countless migrations over the millennia have created many racial mixes, and the process of mixes continues. Peoples with related languages can be of different physical types, depending on the time of the people mixing. Rather than talking about races, it makes more sense to talk about ethnic groups, who speak certain languages and have special cultural characteristics. The extremely varied geographical conditions in Asia have meant that people have adapted very differently, and within the large area one encounters all variations of business forms. Often the ethnic groups are divided into several states, such as the Kurds in West Asia, who live in more than five states, and the Mongols in Central Asia, who are divided into Russia, Mongolia and China according to Countryaah.
North Asia. Here the indigenous people live mainly from hunting and fishing and/or reindeer husbandry. Among the approximately 25 peoples are Yakuts and even the most populous. The indigenous peoples were formerly animists and had shamans, but with the great immigration of Russian colonists in the 20th century, Christianity has become widespread. The Soviet government pursued a strong integration policy towards the local population.
Central Asia. On the rain-poor steppes, people traditionally live as nomads with sheep, goats, cows, camels and horses. To the east, the peoples speak Tibeto-Burmese and Mongolian languages, and they are Buddhists (Mahayana), while the rest of Central Asia is Islamic with a population that predominantly speaks Turkish.
East Asia. In China, the Chinese-speaking male population makes up 95 percent of the population, but in addition, 50 ethnic minorities are expected, many of whom have million-strong populations. Japan’s population of Japanese has come in several waves of immigration over Korea and eastern China. Of ethnic minorities, the Ainu are found in Hokkaido, the few descendants of Japan’s indigenous people, as well as a large element of immigrant Koreans.
Southeast Asia. On the mainland, the great state-forming peoples, Burmese, Laotians, Thais, and Vietnamese, form the backbone of individual nations. They are Buddhists (hinayana) and live as rice farmers on irrigation farms. In the mountain areas live many different smaller tribes, such as Karen, Kachin, Miao and Shan. Their territories often extend beyond the borders of several countries, and in several places they still live by sweating. The mountain people are linguistically and culturally very different from each other and from the large communities in the lowland areas.
The Indonesian and Philippine upper worlds are inhabited by Malaysian peoples who are closely related both linguistically and culturally. Countless currents have rippled through the upper world, but the general picture is, as on the mainland, core areas with intensive agriculture as a basis for state formation or kingdoms, such as Java and Bali, and more marginal mountain areas and islands, such as Borneo and Sulawesi, where several ethnic minorities live by hunting and sweating. Islam is the all-dominant religion with certain exceptions such as Hindu Bali and the Roman Catholic Philippines.
South Asia. In India, more major languages are spoken than in the whole of Europe, but roughly speaking, one can speak of the Indo-Aryan peoples of North India and the Dravidian peoples of South India as representatives of various waves of immigration. The Caucasian racial character is the dominant one, but with innumerable physical variations, and people’s language and caste affiliations have greater weight than actual ethnicity. The Hindu caste system gives South Asia a certain uniform feel. The vast majority of the population lives in villages and lives as farmers. Many tribal people live outside the Hindu caste world both in the mountain and forest areas of southern India and in the northeastern mountain provinces and Himalayas.
West Asia. The cultural diversity that the area holds is the result of millennia of merging peoples of different origins, languages, professions and religions. They are not clearly described as separate peoples, but rather as peasants and townspeople or nomads and oasis peoples. They are fairly evenly distributed between Semitic, Iranian, and Turkish-speaking peoples, but despite all the variations, there are a number of cultural commonalities that are rooted in Islam. However, Iran and the Caucasus region are regions where the ethnic groups more clearly define themselves in relation to each other.
Tuesday, July 1, 1997 at 1 p.m. 0.00 China regained control of Xianggang after 155 years of British rule. Businessman Tung Chi Hua was appointed to head the new government to be backed by a legislative council. According to the agreements, over the next 50 years, Xianggang retains its rights and freedoms, its legal autonomy, its position as an international financial and trade center and its way of life. The area issues its own currency and can even issue laws regarding. emigration and customs issues. Beijing is in charge of defense and foreign policy.
The reunion began the era of “a country, two systems” combining Xianggang’s free-trade economy with the rigid political control of the rest of China. It is an unprecedented experiment in the world.
The reunion took place under the impression of spectacular growth in the Chinese economy, showing no signs of slowing down. At the same time, Xianggang is considered the third most important international financial center in the world after New York and London. In late 1997, rumors of financial difficulties circulated in a number of banks. However, they were demented by the local financial authorities.
In the May 1998 elections, the Hong Kong Democratic Party got the majority of votes, but due to the specially appointed members of parliament, the pro-Chinese sectors can still muster a majority. Taken together, the so-called “Democratic” (pro-Western) parties got 60% of the vote, but they got only 20 out of Parliament’s 60 seats. Tung Chi Hua therefore retains the post of head of government until the end of 2000.
In 2001-02, the economy was hit by a sharp downturn as a result of the global recession, and unemployment rose to 6.2% – the highest figure in 20 years.
In July 2003, Head of Government Tung Chee Hwa postponed the vote on an anti-terror law. This happened after public protests against the law, which opened up life imprisonment for subversive business, rebellion or betrayal of China. At the same time, it gave the police greater powers of power. Acc. the Chinese government’s sole purpose was to prevent foreign forces from using Xianggang to subdue China.
That same month, about ½ million demonstrated against §23 of the Basic Security Act. It provides police are allowed to conduct house searches and arrest without evidence before the court. All opposition leaflets can be considered illegal, whether electronically or in writing, and all persons in the residence can be considered accomplices in possession. The law deals with both residents and non-residents of the island. Following the extensive protests, two senior members of the Hong Kong government were forced to resign and the law was withdrawn indefinitely.
In April 2004, the Chinese legislature decided that they would have the final say in the election of a new leader and new parliament in Hong Kong. The parliamentary commission decided that Hong Kong may change its election law from 2005, but that it must first have permission from Beijing. This interpretation of the area’s constitution means that Beijing will have the right to veto any political reform in the former British Crown Colony. Pro-democracy leaders in Hong Kong emphasized that the interpretation might stifle the autonomy of the area.
At the beginning of July 2004, 250,000 people went on the streets of Hong Kong demanding more democracy and with sharp criticism from the central government for the devastation the SARS virus caused – in March – June 2003, the epidemic cost 299 people – the rising unemployment and especially the total disagreement with Beijing on the choice of area political leaders. The slogan “the power of the people” was perceived by some authorities in Beijing as a call for independence for Hong Kong. The organizers of the demonstration denied that this interpretation was relevant.
Beijing urged the people of Hong Kong to use the day to celebrate the anniversary of reunification with China. In his party speech, Tung Chi Hua called for gathering and peace in Hong Kong without mentioning the demonstrations. During the year, Beijing contributed to strengthening Hong Kong’s economy and to lowering unemployment in response to one of the protesters’ demands.
Also in July, Tung Chi Hua announced that Health Minister Yeoh Eng-kiong resigned as a result of his problematic handling of the SARS epidemic. Yeoh Eng-kiong was criticized for acting very slowly after the virus appeared in an area in southern China. Some observers felt that the minister was fired for shielding Tung Chi Hua’s otherwise unpopular government.