Chad History and Politics
The area of today’s state of Chad was settled early on. Larger masses of people came in the 7th millennium BC. BC, when the climate in the Sahara changed and the desert became a fertile savannah. Hunters and gatherers followed this climate change.
Rich in Central Africa
Different cultures emerged later, such as the Sao south of Lake Chad in the 6th century BC. It existed until the 16th century. More empires were founded. One of the greatest empires was that of Kanem-Bornu, the center of which was east of Lake Chad. In the 15th century the sultanates of Bagirmi and Wadai were founded. The Trans-Saharan trade was their economic basis: goods were transported between the Mediterranean and Central Africa on camels.
French colonial times
In 1891 the French began to take military action against the Muslim kingdoms. In 1900 they achieved the decisive victory in the Battle of Kousséri. The area of Chad was initially a “protected area”, in 1920 it became a colony. Chad became part of French Equatorial Africa. Cotton plantations were created and the inhabitants were forced to work in the fields.
After the Second World War, the demands for independence increased. The colony was now granted more rights. It was represented in the French National Assembly, parties were founded. In 1958 the country was allowed to administer itself. It gained full independence on August 11, 1960.
Reign of François Tombalbaye
François Tombalbaye became the first President of the Republic of Chad. Two years after taking office, he made the country a one-party state in which only his own party was allowed. Tombalbaye ruled dictatorially and had its political opponents brutally persecuted. He himself belonged to the Sarah people from the south of the country. He discriminated against the north in his politics.
In 1966 rebels who wanted to overthrow Tombalbaye, the FROLINAT, became active from neighboring Sudan. Libya and Algeria also supported the group, while France supported Tombalbaye. A civil war ravaged the country.
The border strip with Libya had also become a point of contention between the two countries because there was no agreement on the demarcation of the border in this so-called Aouzou strip. In 1973 Libya occupied this border area.
In 1975 François Tombalbaye was overthrown and murdered in a military coup.
From Malloum to Habré
General Félix Malloum became the new president and formed a military government. He made peace with the FROLINAT rebels, but civil war flared up again in 1979. Malloum lost control of large parts of the country and resigned in 1979.
Goukouni Oueddei took over the office. Several times since 1979 there has been fighting in the Libyan-Chad border war. It only ended in 1987 with the victory of Chad, which was supported by the USA and France.
In 1982 Oueddei was deposed by Hissène Habré. The former FROLINAT rebel named himself the new president. The Sara, Hadjerai and Zaghawa ethnic groups were persecuted and killed under his government.
In 1990 Idriss Déby took power in Chad. In 1991 Chad received a new constitution and several parties were re-allowed. Déby was re-elected in 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011.
Troops from Chad take part in the fight against the terrorist group Boko Haram. Attacks are repeated, especially in N’Djamena, out of revenge.
Civil War 2005-2010
Between 2005 and 2010 there was another civil war in which several rebel groups were involved. At the same time, many people fled Sudan, where ethnic fighting broke out in the Darfur conflict. Fighters from Sudan also raid villages and towns in Chad. Residents from the Central African Republic are also fleeing the political situation there to Chad. 150,000 people still live in refugee camps in Chad.
Many people in Chad live in dire poverty. They do not have enough to eat and are malnourished. Every fifth child is born too light. Children who do not get enough to eat often stay too small and develop diseases. For more articles on Chad and Africa, please visit shoppingpicks.
Many Chadians are in dire need of aid supplies from other countries in order to survive. Many people live in refugee camps in the east and south of the country. You have fled Sudan and the Central African Republic.
The water supply is also poor. Not even half of the population has access to clean drinking water. Almost no one has sanitary facilities, i.e. toilets, in rural areas (2 percent of the population) and only 30 percent even in cities. This is often a breeding ground for disease.
Children particularly suffer from diarrhea and respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and malaria. But also yellow fever, cholera, schistosomiasis Meningitis and African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) are common. The proportion of people infected with HIV is also high.
Of course, other things also make up people’s everyday lives. So it is always warm here, very dry in the north and tropical and humid in the south. People love music and football. To shop, they go to the market and pay with CFA francs.