South America Population
Latin America – population
The native American population is virtually extinct in many places, but especially in northern Central America (southern Mexico and Guatemala according to Countryaah) and in several of the Andes (Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru) the Indians still make up a large part of the population. The composition of the population in Latin America is also characterized by immigration from Europe in colonial times and the large influx of slaves from Africa, which is also reflected in the culture, which has its roots on all three continents. The African touch is especially prominent in the tropical coastal areas, where plantation farming was widespread; Hispanics of European descent make up the majority of the population in much of southern South America and are politically dominant in many other places.
This mixture of the three population groups is a characteristic feature of Latin America. In colonial times, the Spanish territories were primarily distinguished between people born in the Iberian Peninsula, Europeans born in America, people of mixed European-Indian descent, people of mixed European-African descent, blacks, people of mixed African-Indian descent, and Indians. At the same time, the order roughly denotes the real social hierarchy of the colonial era. The distinction between people born in the Iberian Peninsula and Europeans born in America was of great importance in the time leading up to independence, but then lost importance. The group designations have increased and has evolved from being based on race to building more on cultural affiliation; however, they are still largely linked to different positions in the social hierarchies.
The Falkland Islands
In the 2010s, Argentina again raised the tone about the Falkland Islands, not least since several companies started drilling for oil in the sea off the islands (see also Argentina: Foreign Policy). In June 2012, the Government of the Falkland Islands announced its intention to hold a 2013 referendum on the political status of the islands. The purpose, according to the government spokesman, was to determine once and for all to which country the archipelago belongs. British Prime Minister David Cameron said his government would respect the outcome. The referendum was held as planned on March 10, 2013. 90 percent of the 1,672 voters participated in the election and all but three people voted for the islands to continue to be British.
The Falkland Islands are administered by a governor. The Governor is the personal representative of the British monarch and leads an executive council with two officials and three members appointed by the Legislative Council. The latter consists of two officials and eight members elected in general elections every four years.
Most of the agricultural land in the Falkland Islands is used for sheep farming. But the soil is meager and it takes almost a few acres to feed a single animal. Milk production occurs, as does vegetable cultivation. Agriculture on the islands is dependent on government subsidies.
Large quantities of octopus are caught outside the Falkland Islands. In 1993, Argentina accepted a British extension of the Falkland Islands fishing zone from 150 to 200 nautical miles. The two countries also agreed on an annual quota for octopus catch: 150,000 tonnes for Falkland Islands residents and 220,000 tonnes for Argentine fishermen, the latter a sharp increase. In 1997, Argentina and the United Kingdom agreed to begin negotiations on a long-term settlement of the fishing waters in the area.
In recent years, however, the Argentine government has increased its tone vis-à-vis the British government. In 2009, Argentina turned to the UN to formally claim large seas, including both the Falkland Islands and parts of Antarctica. The situation was further aggravated from 2010 when several companies would start drilling for oil and gas in the area (see Argentina: Foreign Policy and Defense). In early 2015, the British government pledged £ 280 million to strengthen the defense of the Falkland Islands. However, no new soldiers would be sent beyond the 1200 already stationed there.
There is a shortage of labor in the islands. The industry consists mainly of a factory for woolen yarn and woolen clothing and fish processing companies. The only significant export is wool, which is sold most sold to the United Kingdom. The islands depend on imports of fuel except peat. Building materials, clothing and other supplies must also be imported. The deficit in trade abroad is significant.
International sales of stamps and coins give the archipelago a significant income.