Types of Tourism in Nepal
There are two main aspects that attract tourists from all over the world to Nepal. This is the exoticism of the country and the opportunity to go in for extreme sports. Of course, tourists are also attracted by the amazing flora and fauna of the jungle in Terai and alpine meadows in high mountain reserves, countless Buddhist and Hindu temples and monasteries. Nevertheless, extreme types of recreation are most common in Nepal.
Quarter of Nepal occupy the mountains of the Himalayan range with a height of 3000 m. It is not surprising that the main extreme types of recreation here are associated with mountains, whether it is high-altitude mountaineering, mountain tourism, trekking or rafting (rafting on mountain rivers). The word Himalaya means “the abode of snows” in Sanskrit. The main Himalayan range runs along the entire northern border of Nepal, 8 of the 14 eight-thousanders of the world are located in the country. Check top-medical-schools.org for travel information in Nepal.
High- altitude mountaineering
The highest peak in the world – Everest (8848 m), or Chomolungma, or Sagarmatha (“mother of the earth”) – is located on the border of Tibet and Nepal. The English name was proposed in honor of the chief surveyor in British India Sir George Everest. Everest was first climbed by New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay. They climbed to the top on May 29, 1953. To date, about 900 climbers have conquered the highest mountain in the world, and about 200 people have died during their ascents. Such an ascent can take 2-3 months, it will be exhausting work in conditions of cold and strong wind, when oxygen starvation begins above a certain height. Ascents are mainly organized by commercial companies, together with a permit to climb, the price of ascent can be several tens of thousands of dollars. And yet, about 500 people a year come to storm Everest. The peak of Cho Oyu, 8158 m high, is part of the Everest mountain range. It is considered one of the most “simple” eight-thousanders due to the fact that that it can be climbed from the Nangpa-La pass (5716 m). At one time, the main trading trail of the Sherpas from Nepal to Tibet.
The second highest peak in Nepal and the third highest in the world is Kanchenjunga (Kanchenyuga). It is located on the border of India with Nepal. The massif consists of 5 peaks, each of which is higher than 8000 m, and the highest is 8586 m. The name of the mountain itself means “five snow treasures”. In Nepal, there is a belief that this is a mountain woman, and she kills climbers who try to climb her. The first ascent of Kanchenjunga was made in 1955 by the British George Band and Joe Brown. The next highest peak in Nepal is Lhotse (Lhotse), located near Everest on the Chinese-Nepalese border. The Lhotse massif consists of 3 peaks: Lhotse Main (8516 m), Lhotse Middle (8414 m) and Lhotse Shar (8386 m). The top of Lhotse Middle for a long time remained the last unconquered eight-thousander. After several unsuccessful attempts in 2001, Russian climbers conquered it. Makalu (8462 m) – the peak, located 22 km east of Everest, is also considered extremely difficult.
Annapurna is a large mountain range that is part of the Main Himalayan Range and is located in the central part of Nepal . in the interfluve of Kali-Gandaki and Marsyangdi. The highest point of the Annapurna I massif (8091) actually has 3 peaks – Main, Middle and Eastern, all of them are higher than 8000 m.. In 1950, Annapurna became the first eight-thousander to be conquered by people – the Frenchmen Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal. Near Annapurna I there are 3 more peaks from 7500 to 7900 m high: Annapurna II, III and IV. On the western bank of the Kali Gandaki River is the Dhaulagiri massif., which is the 7th highest peak in the world (8167 m). From Sanskrit, its name can be translated as “white mountain”. The first successful ascent to it was made only in 1960, and even now the classical route to Dhaulagiri is considered one of the most difficult.
The location of the eight-thousanders determines the priority directions for trekking routes, because even if you are not a climber with many years of experience, it is difficult to refuse to meet the highest mountains in the world. In addition, for this it is not at all necessary to prepare for a long time and conquer the summit itself – it is enough to visit the base camp. Basically, trekking is designed so that the day trip ends in a small village, where you can spend the night in houses that the local population rents out to tourists. The level of service in this case is somewhat higher than if you went on an autonomous trip, but the local loggias bear little resemblance to real hotels. Most often, tourists are waiting for local food, an overnight stay in a sleeping bag and amenities in the yard. The routes are different in length, visited valleys and passes, but usually end in the base climbing camp under the famous eight-thousander. Often the trekking program includes a tour of Buddhist and Hindu shrines and temples. Difficult trekking routes can take place at a fairly high altitude (up to 6000 m) and include climbing peaks. Such options will require good physical fitness. Tourists use the services of Sherpas, a people famous for carrying goods through high-altitude passes, and guides. Since 2006, accompanying a group with a guide and issuing special registration certificates (Trekking Registration Certificate) has become mandatory in Nepal.
The most popular routes are in the area of Everest and Annapurna. The main points on the way to Everest, usually starting in Kathmandu, are Jiri, Lukla and Namchi Bazaar. From the main Buddhist monastery in the district, Tengboche, a beautiful panorama of the peaks of Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, Ama Dablam opens. The Annapurna and Dhualagiri massifs are the most popular trekking destination in Nepal. Routes can go from Pokhara or from Jomsom, there is an air connection between these cities. North of Jomsom The temple complex of Muktinath is located, which is a place of pilgrimage for both Buddhists and Hindus. The most difficult in this area is the ring route around the Annapurna massif. Short walks, taking from one day to a week, can be made in the vicinity of Pokhara, Kathmandu Valley or Chitwan National Park. The Lantang Valley is another popular trekking area in Nepal. It is located north of Kathmandu. In addition to the natural diversity of the Himalayan foothills, it is known for the Gosaikunda Lake, sacred to Hindus, which, according to legend, was created by Shiva. The valley is inhabited by the Tamang ethnic group, close to the Tibetans, and Buddhist shrines are concentrated in the valley itself.