Israel Politics and Economy

In Israel, three geomorphological regions are distinguished, from west to east: the Mediterranean coastal plain, the central mountain range and the Jordan Valley (the deepest depression on Earth). To these three regions, we must add the Negev desert, plains and limestone mountains, located in southern Israel. The arid regions occupy more than half of the territory of Israel. Time zone UTC + 2. Daylight saving time: + 1 hour, starts on the Friday before the last Sunday in March; ends the last Sunday in October

Even though a good part of the territory is desert, the valleys abound with lilies, and also trees such as pines, eucalyptus, olive trees and acacias. Gorse trees grow sporadically in the Negev Desert. There are reforestation initiatives that are carried out throughout the country, especially in the mountains, where pines, oaks, cypresses and laurels take root successfully.

Located between the deserts of Africa and Asia, on the one hand, and the warm and humid Mediterranean Sea, on the other, Israel is at a crossroads of climatic influences that have made it possible to distinguish up to forty different types of climate in such a small area.

The thermal regime varies remarkably with altitude and continentality, especially in winter: from west to east, a typical Mediterranean climate changes to a continental one. Mountainous regions are usually windy and very cold – sometimes with snowfall. The peak of Mount Hermon is covered in snow most of the year and Jerusalem generally receives at least one snowfall each year. Coastal cities, such as Tel Aviv and Haifa, have a typical Mediterranean climate with cold and rain, with long winters and very hot summers. In the extreme south, in the Gulf of Eilat, the climate is tropical dry.

Government and politics

Executive power

  • Head of State: President Reuven Rivlin (since June 11, 2014)
  • Head of Government: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu (since March 31, 2009)

Cabinet selected by the prime minister and approved by the Knesset

Election of the president largely a ceremonial function and is elected by the Knesset for a term of seven years (limit of one term); Last elections held June 10, 2014 (next to be held in 2021) Following the legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, assigns the task of forming a governing coalition to a member of the Knesset who he or she determined most likely to perform that task

Election Results:, Reuven Rivlin Elected President in Second Round; number of votes in the first round -, Reuven Rivlin, 44, Meir Sheetrit 31, 28, Dalia Itzik, Dalia Dorner 13 other / invalid 3; number of votes in the second round -, Reuven Rivlin, 63, Meir Sheetrit 53 other / invalid 3;

Legislative power

Unicameral, Knesset (120 seats; political parties are elected by popular vote and assigning seats to members was proportionally; members serve four-year terms) [1]

Elections of the 22 of January of 2013
(next to be held in 2017)
% Party or Alliance Seats
23.3% Likud [2], 1973 – Beiteinu [3], 1999 (combined for electoral purposes only) 31 seats
14.3% Yesh Atid [4], 2012 19 seats, secular, 2 states
11.4% Israel Labor Party [5], 1968 15 seats, 2 states.
9.1% The Jewish House [6], 2008 12 seats
8.7% SAHS [7], 1984 11 seats
5.2% Torah Judaism [8], 1992 7 seats
5 % The New Movement or Hatnuah [9], 2012 6 seats, secular, pacifist
4.5% Meretz [10], 1992 6 seats, environmentalism, 2 states
3.6% United Arab-Taal List [11], 1996 4 seats, Arabic
3% Hadash [12], 1977, 4 seats, communist
2.6% Balad [13], 1995 3 seats, Arabic
2.1% Kadima [14], 2005 2 seats
7.2% others

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Power of attorney

  • Constitution: no formal constitution; Some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of Parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law (2013)
  • Legal System: Varied legal system of English law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws. In 2002 he retired from the ICCT.
  • Highest court: Supreme Court (It consists of the chief of justice and 14 judges) judges selected by the Judicial Selection Committee, made up of the three branches of the State and chaired by the Minister of Justice; judges can serve up to the mandatory retirement age of 70

Subordinate courts: district and magistrate courts; National and regional Labor Courts; religious and special courts

Administrative divition

6 districts (mehozot, singular – Mehoz)

  • central District
  • Haifa District
  • Jerusalem District
  • North District
  • Southern District
  • Tel Aviv District

International policy

Participation in international organizations: BIS, BSEC (observer), Council of Europe (observer), CICA, EBRD, FAO, IDB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRC, ILO, IMF]], IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGO), MIGA, OAS (observer), the OECD, the OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), the Pacific Alliance (observer), the Paris Club (associate) PCA SELECT (observer), the UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, the UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WT


In 2007, as a country located in Middle East according to, Israel ranked 44th highest for Gross Domestic Product and 22nd highest per capita gross domestic product (in purchasing power parity) at US $ 232.7 billion and US $ 33,299, respectively. [3]

The main exports include fruits, vegetables, pharmaceuticals, software, chemicals, military technology, and diamonds; in 2006 Israeli exports reached 42.86 billion. Israel is a world leader in water conservation and geothermal energy, [4] and its development of cutting-edge technologies in software, communications, and the life sciences have evoked comparisons with Silicon Valley.

High-quality long-staple cotton is grown in Israel, and there are farms specializing in the farming of trout, carp and other fish. It also has a recognized reputation in the field of fashion and as a tourist destination. Tourism, especially religious tourism, is another important industry in Israel, with a mild climate, beaches, archaeological and historical sites, and unique geography, also drawing on tourists.


  • Haarezt [15], 1919, in Hebrew
  • The Jerusalem Post [16], 1932, in English and French
  • Yedioth Ahronoth [17], 1939, in Hebrew
  • Al-Ittihad [18], 1944, in Arabic
  • Maariv [19], 1948, in Hebrew
  • Globes [20], 1983, in Hebrew
  • Kul al-Arab [21], 1987, weekly, in Arabic
  • Courier [22], 1991, in Russian
  • Makor Rishon [23], 1997, in Hebrew
  • Almadina [24], 2004, weekly, in Arabic
  • Israel HaYom [25], 2007, in Hebrew
  • Israel Post, 2007, in Hebrew

Israel-Nachrichten (1935-2011, in German)

Israel Politics

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